However, the extent of thermal cellular injury beyond the borders of the coagulated microcolumns produced with fractional phototherapy is undefined.
I read the paper. H&E and trichrome staining are standard methods for evaluating cell damage. I've done a lot of tissue processing, cutting, and staining for my university job using these staining methods--almost every pathologist expects at least H&E (hematoxylin and eosin). It's pink/orange to blue purple, imparting different colors on different cell types and aspects of the cells.
Trichrome is used when details are needed regarding connective tissue. It adds a third color, usually another blue or a green.
you can see some trichromes here:
http://126.96.36.199/microscopy/course ... ogy03.html
But this paper shows that a new method called TUNEL provides more detail to the extent and borders of tissue damage than typical staining procedures do as it stains areas with DNA nicks a bright fluorescent green. You would not see those nicks with H&E or trichrome.
The authors say it's necessary to do this to get a better grip on tissue damage. Although there have been papers on H&E and trichrome of fraxel-ed tissues, they are ambiguous and there isn't enough evidence to say that Fraxel is providing a true histological benefit. They also say it's necessary to get a better grip on what is tolerated (how many passes, strength of the beam, etc.).
In this paper they tested abdominal tissue with only 1-3 passes. They emphasize that facial fraxels might be completely different and more damage could take place.
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